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We share information only for educational purposes Subscribe & Join us : http://www.youtube.com/user/LifeDiscoveryDocu?sub_confirmation=1 Don't Forget To LIKE this video! Under the Antarctic Ice - Beauty of The Nature The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth. It covers about 98% of the Antarctic continent and is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. It covers an area of almost 14 million square km and contains 26.5 million cubic km of ice. That is, approximately 61 percent of all fresh water on the Earth is held in the Antarctic ice sheet, an amount equivalent to 70 m of water in the world's oceans. In East Antarctica, the ice sheet rests on a major land mass, but in West Antarctica the bed can extend to more than 2,500 m below sea level. The land in this area would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there. The icing of Antarctica began with ice-rafting from middle Eocene times about 45.5 million years ago and escalated inland widely during the Eocene--Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago. CO2 levels were then about 760 ppm and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Carbon dioxide decrease, with a tipping point of 600 ppm, was the primary agent forcing Antarctic glaciation. The glaciation was favored by an interval when the Earth's orbit favored cool summers but Oxygen isotope ratio cycle marker changes were too large to be explained by Antarctic ice-sheet growth alone indicating an ice age of some size. The opening of the Drake Passage may have played a role as well though models of the changes suggest declining CO2 levels to have been more important. Ice enters the sheet through precipitation as snow. This snow is then compacted to form glacier ice which moves under gravity towards the coast. Most of it is carried to the coast by fast moving ice streams. The ice then passes into the ocean, often forming vast floating ice shelves. These shelves then melt or calve off to give icebergs that eventually melt. If the transfer of the ice from the land to the sea is balanced by snow falling back on the land then there will be no net contribution to global sea levels. A 2002 analysis of NASA satellite data from 1979--1999 showed that while overall the land ice is decreasing, areas of Antarctica where sea ice was increasing outnumbered areas of decreasing sea ice roughly 2:1. The general trend shows that a warming climate in the southern hemisphere would transport more moisture to Antarctica, causing the interior ice sheets to grow, while calving events along the coast will increase, causing these areas to shrink. A 2006 paper derived from satellite data, measures changes in the gravity of the ice mass, suggests that the total amount of ice in Antarctica has begun decreasing in the past few years. Another recent study compared the ice leaving the ice sheet, by measuring the ice velocity and thickness along the coast, to the amount of snow accumulation over the continent. This found that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet was in balance but the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was losing mass. This was largely due to acceleration of ice streams such as Pine Island Glacier. These results agree closely with the gravity changes. The estimate published in November 2012 and based on the GRACE data as well as on an improved glacial isostatic adjustment model indicates that an average yearly mass loss was 69 ± 18 Gt/y from 2002 to 2010. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet was approximately in balance while the East Antarctic Ice Sheet gained mass. The mass loss was mainly concentrated along the Amundsen Sea coast.
Credit: Green flash by Mila Zinkova http://yourshot.nationalgeographic.com/profile/86788/
Brine pools are saltwater lakes at the bottom of our oceans that we know little about. Dive down into the deep sea with the Blue Planet II and Alucia Productions team to discover how they filmed the incredible ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. Subscribe to BBC Earth: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthSub Hear from pioneering scientists Dr Sylvia Earle and Dr Mandy Joye about why these fascinating but toxic lakes offer exciting opportunities for new science and medicine. #ourblueplanet is a digital project between BBC Earth and Alucia Productions. Join the conversation over on Twitter @OurBluePlanet. This film was produced by Alucia Productions. You can find out more about Alucia on their website https://aluciaproductions.com/https://aluciaproductions.com/ Watch more videos from BBC Earth: Planet Earth http://bit.ly/PlanetEarthPlaylist Blue Planet http://bit.ly/BluePlanetPlaylist Planet Earth II http://bit.ly/PlanetEarthIIPlaylist Planet Dinosaur http://bit.ly/PlanetDinoPlaylist Production Crew: Director: Mark Dalio Director of Photography: Janssen Powers Field Audio: Mike Kassic Production Manager: Audrey Costadina Associate Producer: Marjorie Crowley Editor/Colorist: Ryan Quinn Re-Recording Mixer (honeymix): Eric Thompson Assistant Editor: Jorge Alverez Post Production Supervisor: Brian Golding Executive Producer: Jennifer Hile Check out the other two channels in our BBC Earth network: BBC Earth Unplugged: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthUnplugged BBC Earth Lab: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthLabYouTubeChannel About BBC Earth: The world is an amazing place full of stories, beauty and natural wonder. Explore the official BBC Earth YouTube channel and meet the animals and wildlife of your planet. Here you'll find 50 years worth of astounding, entertaining, thought-provoking and educational natural history documentaries. Dramatic, rare and wild nature doesn't get more exciting than this. Subscribe to be the first to view new animal documentary videos. You can also become part of the BBC Earth community on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Here you'll find the best natural history content from the web, exclusive videos and images and a thriving, vibrant community. Want to share your views with the team behind BBC Earth and win prizes? Join our fan panel here: http://tinyurl.com/YouTube-BBCEarth-FanPanel This is a channel from BBC Worldwide, trading as BBC Studios, who help fund new BBC programmes.
Enter the Economist #OpenFuture contest: A minute to change the world. See more here: https://goo.gl/FU4YL4 The ocean covers 70% of our planet. The deep-sea floor is a realm that is largely unexplored, but cutting-edge technology is enabling a new generation of aquanauts to go deeper than ever before. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Beneath the waves is a mysterious world that takes up to 95% of Earth's living space. Only three people have ever reached the bottom of the deepest part of the ocean. The deep is a world without sunlight, of freezing temperatures, and immense pressure. It's remained largely unexplored until now. Cutting-edge technology is enabling a new generation of aquanauts to explore deeper than ever before. They are opening up a whole new world of potential benefits to humanity. The risks are great, but the rewards could be greater. From a vast wealth of resources to clues about the origins of life, the race is on to the final frontier The Okeanos Explorer, the American government state-of-the-art vessel, designed for every type of deep ocean exploration from discovering new species to investigating shipwrecks. On board, engineers and scientists come together to answer questions about the origins of life and human history. Today the Okeanos is on a mission to investigate the wreck of a World War one submarine. Engineer Bobby Moore is part of a team who has developed the technology for this type of mission. The “deep discover”, a remote operating vehicle is equipped with 20 powerful LED lights and designed to withstand the huge pressure four miles down. Equivalent to 50 jumbo jets stacked on top of a person While the crew of the Okeanos send robots to investigate the deep, some of their fellow scientists prefer a more hands-on approach. Doctor Greg stone is a world leading marine biologist with over 8,000 hours under the sea. He has been exploring the abyss in person for 30 years. The technology opening up the deep is also opening up opportunity. Not just to witness the diversity of life but to glimpse vast amounts of rare mineral resources. Some of the world's most valuable metals can be found deep under the waves. A discovery that has begun to pique the interest of the global mining industry. The boldest of mining companies are heading to the deep drawn by the allure of a new Gold Rush. But to exploit it they're also beating a path to another strange new world. In an industrial estate in the north of England, SMD is one of the world's leading manufacturers of remote underwater equipment. The industrial technology the company has developed has made mining possible several kilometers beneath the ocean surface. With an estimated 150 trillion dollars’ worth of gold alone, deep-sea mining has the potential to transform the global economy. With so much still to discover, mining in the deep ocean could have unknowable impact. It's not just life today that may need protecting; reaching the deep ocean might just allow researchers to answer some truly fundamental questions. Hydrothermal vents, hot springs on the ocean floor, are cracks in the Earth's crust. Some claim they could help scientists glimpse the origins of life itself. We might still be years away from unlocking the mysteries of the deep. Even with the latest technology, this kind of exploration is always challenging. As the crew of the Okeanos comes to terms with a scale of the challenge and the opportunity that lies beneath, what they and others discover could transform humanity's understanding of how to protect the ocean. It's the most hostile environment on earth, but the keys to our future may lie in the deep. Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
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From longtime collaborators BBC Earth and OceanX Media (Blue Planet II), Oceans: Our Blue Planet is an oceanic adventure unlike any other.
The film, by the producers of the groundbreaking Blue Planet II series is narrated by Kate Winslet and features OceanX’s research vessel the Alucia.
Oceans: Our Blue Planet takes audiences on a global odyssey into the largest and least explored habitat on earth.
Our first stop is the coral reefs, where we meet fascinating characters like the ingenious tuskfish that uses a tool to open its food. In the great forests of the sea, we find a cunning octopus who shields herself in an armoury of shells to hide from predators. In Antarctica, we explore unparalleled depths and encounter a seafloor rich with marine life. As we journey through our oceans, we share these extraordinary discoveries and uncover a spectacular world of marine wildlife beneath the waves.