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Support our channel with a small donation at http://patreon.com/sprouts or by spreading the word. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual should pass through from birth to death. At each stages we encounter different needs, ask new questions and meet people who influence our behavior and learning. 1) Basic Trust vs. Mistrust, Infancy (1-2 years) As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world and we wonder if it's safe. We learn that if we can trust someone now, we can also trust others in the future. If we experience fear, we develop doubt and mistrust. The key to our development is our mother. 2) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt, Early childhood (2-4 years) In our early childhood, we experience ourselves and discover our body. We ask: is it okay to be me? If we are allowed to discover ourselves, then we develop self-confidence. If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt. Both parents now play a major role. 3) Initiative vs. Guilt, Preschool Age (4-5 years) In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things, and learn basic principles like how round things roll. We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do? If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests. If we are held back or told that what we do is silly, we can develop guilt. We are now learning from the entire family. 4) Industry vs. Inferiority, School Age (5-12 years) Now we discover our own interests and realize that we are different from others. We want to show that we can do things right. We ask if we can make it in this world? If we receive recognition from our teachers or peers we become industrious, which is another word for hard-working. If we get too much negative feedback, we start to feel inferior and lose motivation. Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most. 5) Identity vs. Role Confusion, Adolescence (13–19 years) During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles. We are friends, students, children and citizens. Many experience an identity crises. If our parents now allow us to go out and explore, we can find identity. If they push us to conform to their views, we can face role confusion and feel lost. Key to our learning are our peers and role models. 6) Intimacy vs. Isolation, Early Adulthood (20-40 years) As young adults we slowly understand who we are and we start to let go of the relationships we had built earlier in order to fit in. We ask ourselves if we can love? If we can make a long-term commitment, we are confident and happy. If we cannot form intimate relationships, we might end up feeling isolated and lonely. Our friends and partners are now center to our development. 7) Generativity vs. Stagnation - Adulthood (40-65) When we reach our forties we become comfortable, use our leisure time creatively and maybe begin contributing to society. Our concern is Generativity. If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world, we are happy. If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier, we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation. People at home and at work are now who influence us most. 8) Ego Integrity vs. Despair, Maturity (65-death) As we grow older we tend to slow down and begin to look back over our lives. We ask: how have I done? If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity. If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter. Time to compare us with mankind. Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist who together with his wife Joan, became known for his work on psychosocial development. He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud and became famous for coining the phrase "identity crisis." Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor's degree, he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale.
Overview of Freud's psychosexual stages of development and how fixation in each stage can influence personality.
Sigmund Freud, the inventor of psychoanalysis, appreciated the many ways in which our minds are troubled and anxious. It isn't us in particular: it's the human condition. Find out more about how Freud thought in our 'Great Thinkers': https://goo.gl/toR8m8 If you like our films, take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): https://goo.gl/7JluX0 FURTHER READING “He described himself as an obsessional neurotic. For although the father of modern psychology told us so much about our inner lives, he was touchingly vulnerable himself....” You can read more on this and many other topics on our blog TheBookofLife.org: https://goo.gl/WtiV8v MORE SCHOOL OF LIFE Our website has classes, articles and products to help you think and grow: https://goo.gl/NJ702c More films on PSYCHOTHERAPY in our playlist below: http://bit.ly/TSOLpsychotherapy Do you speak a different language to English? Did you know you can submit Subtitles on all of our videos on YouTube? For instructions how to do this click here: https://goo.gl/fUMMxh SOCIAL MEDIA Feel free to follow us at the links below: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/theschooloflifelondon/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheSchoolOfLife Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theschooloflifelondon/ CREDITS Produced in collaboration with: Mad Adam http://www.madadamfilms.co.uk #TheSchoolOfLife
Piaget's theory argues that we have to conquer 4 stages of cognitive development: 1. Sensori-Motor Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage 3. Concrete Operational Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage Only once we have gone through all the stages, at what age can vary, we are able to reach full human intelligence. Special thanks for our patroeon supporters: Ville Medeiros, Chutimon Nuangnit, Cedric Wang, Mike, Eva Marie Koblin, Julien Dumesnil, Mathis and the others. You are amazing !!! Join our supporters and help us reach students and teachers worldwide with friendly videos that explain difficult tings simply: www.patreon.com/sprouts Sources: https://www.biography.com/people/jean-piaget-9439915 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget%27s_theory_of_cognitive_development http://www.appsychology.com/Book/Developmental/cognitivedevelopment.htm Full Script: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1RAeKhw_9Q5DNiftYLyoV8hmCkLjec1za143sGZLxrEw/edit?usp=sharing