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In this video I will be discussing developmental milestones as well as some of the primitive reflexes. Different sources say different things about when precisely these reflexes are supposed to disappear, but I will be presenting them in a way that’s easiest to remember. Four reflexes all medical students should know: Moro, Rooting, Palmar, and Babinski The Moro reflex happens when you startle the baby usually initiated by pulling the baby up from lying down and suddenly let its head fall back. The baby should rapidly abduct and extend the arms, open the hands, tense the back muscles, and sometimes begin crying. Moro has 4 letters, and it usually disappears by 4 months. The Rooting reflex exists to help the naïve infant begin to breast feed. When you stroke their check, they respond by turning their head and beginning to suckle. The root word of rooting is… root… which has 4 letters, and this reflex usually disappears by 4 moths as well. The Palmar reflex is the involuntary flexion of the fingers following hand stimulation. Palmar has 6 letters and usually disappears by 6 months. The Babinski reflex is a sign of an upper motor neuron lesion in adults, but physiologic in babies. It is present when the big toe extends upward and the other toes fan out in response to stimulation of the bottom of the foot. This one doesn’t follow the rule of letters, so just know it disappears at 12 months (which is 1 year). Now for developmental milestones. At 1 month, the infant should be able to lift its head. If not, it could be a sign of hypotonia. At 6 months, the infant should follow the “s” rule: Sitting, Stranger anxiety, and switching hands (or passing a toy from one hand to the other) At 9 months, the infant should be able to crawl. Crawling kind of looks like a 9 fell down. A 9 also looks like the letter “P” in the mirror, so I use that to remember that 9 month old infants develop object Permanence and seParation anxiety. At 12 months, or 1 year, the toddler should be standing (the number one looks like it’s standing) and taking the 1st steps. It should also be able to use a pincer grasp and throw a ball. As for language, it should also be using its first words and following 1-step commands, perhaps with a helpful gesture. At 18 months, a toddler will be running around and kicking a ball. It should be able to remove clothing (depicted here as the shoe coming off) and build a cube tower – a good rule is that children can build a cube tower as tall as three times their age in years. For language, they should be able to say about 18 words (give or take) and identify a body part. They should understand the concept of “mine” and “pretend” like playing with a stuffed animal For the rest of the milestones, I will draw the child’s head as the shape they should be able to copy. So at 2 years, a toddler should be able to draw a line. They should be able to go up the stairs (2 feet at a time), jump (which requires 2 feet), say 2 word phrases, follow 2 step commands, and begin toilet training (#2). They should be able to say at the minimum 50 words (which follows this rule of 2’s if you consider that 50 is half of 100. They should also engage in parallel play, which is when children play next to each other mostly by themselves, but showing interest in the others. At three years, a toddler should now be able to go upstairs with alternating feet. As you can see by the head, they should also be able to copy a circle. I’ve drawn the hair to indicate that the child should also know what age / gender they are. They can also use utensils, and engage in imaginative play. They should be able to use 3 word sentences, be 3/4ths intelligible to strangers, ride a tricycle, and say about a thousand words, which has 3 zeroes. Finally, three-year-olds should be able to spend the day away from their parents, hence “I am free.” (which rhymes with three). At four years, a pre-schooler should be able to balance and hope on 1 foor, just like the number 4, and be able to copy a square. They should know their colors, be 4/4ths (100%) intelligible, and engage in cooperative play which is kind of included in the picture with the “and” to indicate cooperativeness. At five years, a child should be able to do everything a kindergartener should be able to do with a good deal of independency. This includes skipping, walking backwards, copying a triangle, dressing, bathing, printing letters, counting numbers, and saying 5 word sentences. They should also have friends and should have completed toilet training. Well that’s it! Thanks for watching. Be sure to like and subscribe for more videos!
Learn about the stages and developmental milestones in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Created by Carole Yue. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/cognition/v/schemas-assimilation-and-accommodation-2 Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/memory/v/semantic-networks-and-spreading-activation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Video made by Brooke, Nimi, Hayley, Victoria and Meagan. Parent-friendly video outlining the stages of Erikson's development from birth to adulthood.
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